It’s possible that she will give a party next week.

Relative clause العبارة الموصولة

*العبارة الموصولة هي التي تحتوى على ضمير وصل

Who \ which\ that\ where\ when\ whose

عندما تحل هذه الضمائر محل فاعل في الجملة (الأولى) يوضع الضمير (الجملة الثانية + الضمير) بعد الفاعل الأول مع حذف المتكرر في الجملة الثانية .

عندما تحل الضمائر محل مفعول به (الجملة الأولى) يوضع الضمير بين الجملتين بعد المفعول مع حذف المتكرر في الجملة الثانية .

1-Who … تحل محل فاعل / مفعول الذي / التي للعاقل

- Mr. Adel is a doctor. He live here.

- Mr. Adel who lives near is a doctor.

- I saw Adel(مفعول) saved the child.

- I saw Adel who saved the child.

2-Which … تحل محل فاعل / مفعول الذي / التي لغير للعاقل

- This is the dog. Bit the boy.

- This is the dog which bit the boy.

3- That …..تحل محل who / which يطبق عليها نفس القواعد السابقة

-The man ………has a red car is my uncle.

(which\ that\ whose\ where)

4-Where حيث تحل محل مكان

- He went to Alex. He was born in Alexandria.

- He went to Alex where he was born.

لاحظ تم حذف حرف الجر

- She spent ten years in London. She worked on London.

- She spent ten years in It’s possible that she will give a party next week. London where she worked.

5-When عندما / تحل محل زمان

- He phoned me last Monday. He arrived last Monday.

- He phoned me last Monday when he arrived.

لاحظ تم حذف حرف الجر

6-Whose تحل محل الملكية

- Mr. Ahmed is angry. His car was stolen.

- Mr. Ahmed whose car was stolen is angry.

Obligationالضرورة

في المضارع :

Must / have to Has to+ المصدر

وهي تساوي It is necessary for … to + inf .

Mustn’t يجب ألا : تأتى في التحريم / المنع

وهي تساوي It is necessary for … not to +inf

و It is not allowed for … to.

You mustn't play with matches.

You mustn't park here.

don’t have to + مصدر

doesn’t have to مصدر

وهي تدل علي عدم ضرورة فعل شيء

و تساوي It is not necessary for… to +inf. وتساوي don't need to +inf

و needn't +inf

في الماضي :

Had to It’s possible that she will give a party next week. +inf

وهي تساوي It was necessary for … to + inf .

didn’t have to + مصدر

و تساوي It was not necessary for… to +inf.

وتساوي didn't need to +inf.

You must do your homework now, or father will be angry.

You don’t have to do your homework now, tomorrow is a holiday.



Deduction الاستنتاج

Making deduction about the past عمل استنتاج في الماضي

الاستنتاج عن أحداث ماضية

To make deduction about the past, we use:

Must have

+ past participle (التصريف الثالث للفعل)
Can't have

May have

Might have

1. Must have + p.p. = I was sure.

تستخدم عندما نميل إلى التأكد من أن شيئا ما قد حدث .

- The telephone rang, but I didn't hear it. I must have been asleep.

2. Can't have + p.p. = I was sure It’s possible that she will give a party next week. not.

تستخدم عندما نميل إلى التأكد بأن شيئا ما لم يحدث .

- He failed the exam. He can't have studied well.

3. May have + p.p. = I was not sure It was probable

تستخدم عندما نكون غير متأكدين من حدوث شيء ما في الماضي .

4- might have + p.p = It is possible (possibly)= I don't think so.

* She arrived late yesterday, but I didn't think so. (might)

- She might have arrived late yesterday.

Deduction in the present الاستنتاج في الحاضر

Must be = I'm sure

لا بد أن (تستخدم للاستنتاج المؤكد المثبت)

She must be a tourist. She is taking photographs and holding a camera.

Can't be = I'm sure (not)

مستحيل أن (تستخدم للاستنتاج المؤكد المنفى)

He can't be a tourist. He is wearing a galabeya.

May be = I'm not sure = perhaps = probably

ربما (تستخدم عند التعبير عن الاحتمال القوى)

She may It’s possible that she will give a party next week. be a tourist. I'm not sure.

Might be = I don't think so / possibly

ربما (تستخدم عند التعبير عن الاحتمال الضعيف)

She might be a tourist. I don't think so.

ادرس الروابط التالية

1-As soon as / After + ماضي بسيط ، ماضي تام

After he had watched TV, he slept.

ماضي تام before/When/by the time ماضي بسيط

Before had slept, he had watched TV.

ماضي تام until ماضي بسيط منفي

He didn't sleep until he had watched TV.

ماضي بسيط since مضارع تام

He hasn't telephoned me since he was in Alex.

2-While(as\just as) / during

ماضي بسيط + while ماضي مستمر + بينما / أثناء / خلال

While + ماضي بسيط ........ ماضي مستمر + جملة


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Документ It’s possible that she will give a party next week.